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Wozu DNA Tests?

Sie ermöglichen:

  • Zucht von gesunden Tieren
  • Zucht von Tieren mit gewünschten Felleigenschaften
  • Tieridentifikation
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  • Durchführung von Gentests nach den höchsten Laborstandards
  • Genetische Beratung durch Tierärzte und Ph.D. - Genetiker
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  • Rasse spezifische Testpakete
  • Rabattprogramme
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Mit DNA Tests können Prädisposition für die Entwicklung von spezifischen Krankheiten,Eigenschaften und Reaktionen auf die Therapie bestimmt werden.

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How does the sample affect the DNA test?
Sample collection is the first step in DNA testing and is often done by the dog owner himself. Since a sample is a starting material for performing a DNA test, it is crucial that it is taken correctly. Samples of poor-quality cause problems throughout the laboratory procedure and in some cases can even lead to an erroneous result. To avoid problems and delays in DNA testing, we will point out the key points in sampling collection process.   The amount of DNA in a collected sample (blood, swab) is directly related to the amount of biological material. Even a few drops of blood contain enough DNA to perform a DNA test. There are more problems with buccal swabs which are not collected properly. When oral mucosa is swabbed by a collection brush mucosal cells are caught on the brush. If swabbing is to gentle or the period is to short less cells and consequently less DNA are collected. When collecting samples we advise you to insert the collection brush into the mouth of the dog between the gums and the cheek, create pressure from the outside of the cheek with your hand and rub the brush with circular movements for 30 seconds. In this way, you will avoid samples with insufficient amount of biological material from which a genetic test cannot be performed.   Another important factor in a DNA sample is its quality. When we talk about the quality of DNA in a biological sample, we primarily mean its degradation. DNA is a long molecule that breaks down into shorter pieces after a biological sample is taken. Degradation process cannot be avoided. You can imagine that DNA is a long strand that is cut into shorter pieces under the influence of various factors. Degradation to a certain point does not affect a genetic test, but once the DNA is broken down into extremely short fragments, a genetic test can no longer be performed. Because DNA degrades with time, it is important that the samples for analysis are as fresh as possible. DNA degradation is accelerated by various factors such as high temperatures, UV light, etc. Proper preparation of the sample for sending to the laboratory is also very important. It is crucial that the swab is dried before sending, because in the case of a large amount of moisture that comes out of the saliva, mold and bacteria overgrow during transport, which further accelerates the breakdown of DNA. For the sample, the worst combination is a small amount of the initial sample and intensive degradation, which occurs with improperly collected and transported buccal swabs. In blood samples, these problems are less common because the amount of starting material is much larger than in swabs of the oral mucosa.   The third important factor is an infection of a sample with foreign DNA and refers primarily to buccal swabs. This problem occurs mainly with owners who have multiple dogs living together. Due to the use of shared toys, equipment, suckling puppies and other similar reasons, the DNA of other animals is often found in the mouths of dogs living together. When a buccal swab is taken in such a case, the sample is a mixture of biological material from different dogs. The amount of biological material of sampled dog is in the majority, but genetic methods are extremely sensitive and detect smaller amounts of foreign DNA. If there is a DNA of two dogs in a sample, this cannot be detected by a genetic test, and can lead to an erroneous result. In case the dog is negative for the tested mutation and the sample is infected with the DNA of the dog that is a carrier, the result of the genetic test will be wrong (carrier). The easiest way to avoid this is to send a blood sample in such cases, but you can also do this by separating the animals living together and washing their mouth with water before taking a swab.   We have described three key factors influencing the quality of a sample to perform a genetic test. You can read more detailed sample collection instructions HERE. By following the sampling instructions, you avoid complications and delays in performing a genetic test.
What is a DNA test?
DNA testing in dogs has been on the rise in recent years as more and more breeders and canine organizations require certain DNA tests to register dogs or mate. Every day we are contacted by clients who would like to order a DNA test but do not know what DNA tests are or what they are intended for. They just know they need them. To some extent, the situation is understandable as it is a professional topic that is not best known to the general public. To make it easier to understand what a DNA test actually is and what information it gives us, we will explain some basic concepts.     A genetic test is basically an analysis of hereditary information that every living thing carries in its cells. Hereditary information is stored in the form of a DNA molecule, which can be described as a book in which instructions for the operation of a human, dog or other living being are written. A genetic test reads a specific part of this information that has been related to a physical characteristic (hair colour, hair length…), a genetic disease, or another trait we want to analyse. Because hereditary information in the form of DNA is found in every cell of the organism, it must be transcribed each time a new cell is formed. There are errors in DNA transcription that are called mutations. Some mutations do not affect the content of the hereditary information but some do and thus cause e.g. hair colour change or the development of a genetic disease.   In their studies, scientists analyse DNA in a large number of dogs and try to link specific changes to physical traits or genetic diseases. When they succeed, a procedure is developed to analyse a specific DNA change called a genetic test. A genetic test is in most cases specific to a particular breed or group of dog breeds, which means that it is not suitable for breeds for which no association between a specific change in DNA and a specific genetic trait has been demonstrated. In practice, this means that two different breeds may have the same genetic disease or trait, and the genetic test currently available is only suitable for one of these breeds.   In recent years, we have seen big discoveries in the field of genetics, which resulted in increasing number of genetic tests and the areas of their application in dogs. The most common are genetic tests to determine physical characteristics, predisposition to genetic diseases, and to determine the identity of animals. When deciding on a genetic test, it is necessary to know what you are actually interested in, because only in this way you will get the appropriate answers to the questions asked with the genetic test. To make it easier to choose the appropriate genetic test, a search engine is available on our website, with the help of which you can filter genetic tests suitable for a specific breed of dog. In case you need more genetic tests, packages are also available for more than 40 dog breeds. These consist of DNA tests that are most used in a particular breed.   In order to perform a genetic test, an appropriate sample is needed, which is most often taken by dog owners themselves. Since a quality sample is crucial for the correct result of a genetic test, we will write in our next post about the importance of the appropriate sample, proper sampling, and the most common problems.